Mining is being carried out using the sublevel open stoping method at the Kayad underground mine. The mine will ultimately reach a depth of 390 m. Kayad village is only 100 m (horizontally) from the underground mining areas. As a result, blast-induced ground vibration is one of the major issues for the residents of the village. This paper deals with the process involved in optimising blast design parameters at the development face blast, slot raise blast and ring hole blast to control blast-induced vibration within safe limits while ensuring improved production, productivity and safety. In total, 1041 development face blasts, 110 slot raise blasts and 52 ring hole blasts were conducted, and 2612 vibration data were monitored in the village at different locations. Initially, electronic delay detonators were used, with an emphasis on controlling vibration in the surface structures. Subsequently, shock tube (Nonel) initiations were used as the blasting faces reached lower depths. A comparative study was also performed for both the initiation systems. The orebody width generally varied from 3.1 to 7 m, and ring hole designs were optimised accordingly. The number of holes in a ring was up to seven and the depth was up to 23 m, depending on the size/width of the orebody. The ring blasts were performed with 64–340 kg of emulsion cartridge explosive and detonated with explosive weight per delay of 10.92–17.16 kg. Extensive experiments were performed and blast-induced vibrations were controlled in the village. Deck blasting (ie up to four explosives decks) was used in a blasthole and the explosive charges were separated by delay detonators, which helped to control the vibration in the village. The actual detonation time of each deck was recorded by monitoring the in-hole velocity of detonation of the explosives, and the charging patterns were optimised accordingly to get the desired blast results.
Roy, M P, Singh, P K, Sarim, M, Jaitawat, P S and Joshi, A, 2015. Blast design and vibration control at Kayad lead-zinc underground mine, in Proceedings 11th International Symposium on Rock Fragmentation by Blasting, pp 533–544 (The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Melbourne).