The behaviour of coal in a process is a function of both the coal properties and the processing conditions. In the case of the Loy Yang coal deposit, extensive testing has been undertaken to determine: • the extent, distribution and structure of the coal resource; • the variations in properties throughout the resource; and • evaluation of the behaviour of the coal during processing. This has involved the conduct of an extensive borehole drilling program, backed by geological modelling and material characterisation (chemical, physico-chemical and petrological). Evaluation of the behaviour of the coal during processing has ranged from theoretical modelling, laboratory-scale investigations through to pilot scale and full-scale tests. Until recently, the bulk of the work was directed at evaluating the behaviour of the coal for existing pulverised fuel (pf) firing/steam boiler technology and a high level of understanding has been developed of both the coal resource and its behaviour within these systems. More recent efforts have been directed towards the evaluation of new technologies directed towards cheaper and more efficient power generation using this coal. Loy Yang coal has been evaluated in the following technologies: • Hydrothermal dewatering/direct coal-fired gas turbine; • Steam fluidised bed drying; • Solar drying/densification; • Briquetting; and • Gasification.