The Australian underground coal mining industry is undergoing major changes. This paper analyses the technologies presently being researched in mines, and discusses their utilisation as major contributors in the underground mining of coal in Australia over the next 20 years. It describes the problems that underground mining of the year 2000 will face and the possible solutions to those problems based upon results of present day research. Methods, equipment and organisational requirements are outlined. Developments in micro-electronics, computerisation and monitoring will require a new look into human resource development, education and training, and organisation to meet the challenges of the 21st century. The mining system’s philosophies of the future are Outlined.