Field investigation of surface subsidence events associated with both active and abandoned underground coal mines in the United States has established criteria that enable the prediction and classification of mine-related subsidence. The key was establishing the role of geology in all types of subsidence and the recognition of beam subsidence in specific geologic settings. The classification is based on overburden thickness, variations in stratigraphy, topography and mine plan. Types of subsidence are Pit, Room, Sag, and Beam. Pit subsidence is associated with three geologic settings: shale overburden, seasonally wet unconsolidated overburden, and perched water table in unconsolidated overburden. Room subsidence occurs where the roof across the width of the room fails to the surface and a shallow depression develops.