I start with some lines from “Pleasures of Hope” by the poet Campbell, published in 1798, which sets the flavour of what I am going to say. They blissful omens bid my spirit see The boundless fields of rapture yet to be; I watch the wheels of Nature’s mazy plan, And learn the future by the past of man. I hope to echo the poet’s optimistic view of what is yet to come. I am not sure I can find all the omens blissful but we all have some experience of what the wheels of Nature’s mazy plan get up to. His advice to learn the future by the past of man seemed sensible to follow, so on the principle that the past of several men would be better than one alone I invited Alan Attwood, Maurice Cahalan, Gavin Moncrieff, Derek Temple, and Peter Wright to help me prepare this address; I am most grateful to them for their contributions. Of the technologies covered in this sequence of keynote addresses, metallurgy is the one which is closest to our consumers. On the age-old principle, which I do not expect to see changed in the 21st Century, that production is about providing the customer with what he wants, when he wants it, where he wants it, and at a price he can afford, I think we should start by trying to see how the market place is likely to develop, and to work back from there to review what technology we need to meet these demands.