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Influence of Bolts on Discontinuities and Yielding Rock – Conceptual Developments


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Author Indraratna B


The paper highlights the conceptual developments in rock mechanics applied to quantify the effect of bolts in the stabilization of joints and yielding soft rocks. NOTATION Aa = stress change after excavation E„ EE, E„ = moduli of intact rock, single joint and jointed rock Eb = elastic modulus of the bolt k, = normal stiffness of joint Ab = cross section area of the bolt A, = area of influence per bolt ab = axial bolt stress e, = axial strain of the bolt e„ e,, ej, = strains of intact rock, joint and jointed rock Ai = area of the joint ,r+ = shearing resistance of the bolt (at the joint) a = normal stress at the joint plane a„a3 = major and minor principal stresses c;, 4i; = cohesion and friction angle of the joint 0 = angle between the bolt and the joint a = inclination of the joint to the vertical axis P = bolt density parameter u, = convergence of unsupported tunnel section u, = convergence of bolted tunnel