BHP Billiton, in collaboration with Sodern and CSIRO, has developed a downhole logging tool for measuring geochemistry in situ. The FastGradeTM 100 (alternatively, FG100), exploits pulsed fast and thermal neutron analysis (PFTNA) to analyse the rock. This method is based on the detection and measurement of characteristic gamma rays emitted from isotopes in the material that become briefly radioactive when they are bombarded with neutrons. The tool outputs raw spectra arising from three types of neutron interaction, namely, inelastic scattering, neutron capture and neutron activation, which occur in successive time-windows (Smith et al, 2015). The spectra contain peaks at specific energies that are characteristic of the different elements interacting with the neutrons, the gamma count of which is related to elemental concentration. BHP Billiton uses in-house data processing software to convert the measured spectra to elemental concentrations.
Much work has been done to understand the tool response under a wide variety of environmental and operating conditions, including logging speed, borehole rugosity, the presence of cavities, water etc. Effort has also been directed at understanding and quantifying the current sources of error in our conventional assays due to sample collection, preparation, and laboratory instrumentation in order to use this information as a baseline to compare against the FastGradeTM 100 results.
To date, the FastGradeTM 100 primary use has been as a verification tool (JORC, 2012). However, beyond this, it has considerable potential to improve productivity in both exploration and production environments due to its ability to provide geologists with assay results soon after a hole is drilled.
This paper presents initial test work and tool performance, including accuracy and precision under various conditions. Results are illustrated by comparing tool measurements to assays from laboratory samples collected from both reverse circulation and diamond-drilled holes.
Chi, B, Maddever, R A M, Mahanta, A and Dominguez, O, 2017.
Near real-time assay with downhole assay tool (FastGrade™ 100), in
Proceedings Eighth World Conference on Sampling and Blending , pp 137–144 (The Australasian Institute of Mining and Metallurgy: Melbourne).