New approaches in the last decade have led to the supplemental use of raw coal as a direct energy source in several iron and steelmaking processes. The dependence on more expensive coke and electricity is being progressively reduced. The Technology Venture of Klockner Werke and CRA has pionered several of these developments and is pushing ahead to processes for scrap melting and direct smel- ting of iron where coal is the ONLY energy source. Such complex developments depend strong- ly on the experience gained in the simpler but related processes for coal use already in operation. The longer term implications of a successful coal-based direct smelting process for the world steel industry are substantial.