Major improvements have taken place in mineral and coal processing in the last decade. The development of nuclear on-line sensors that continuously analyse the material being processed has led to better control of metalliferous mineral processing and increased recovery of valuable minerals. The recent development of on-line techniques for analysis of coal is expected to be of similar Importance. Australian developments in on-line nuclear gauges are reviewed. These include systems for in-stream analysis of mineral slurries with comments on plant operating experience; on-line determination of ash in coal using low energy Y-ray transmission and pair production techniques; in-stream determination of solids weight fraction and ash content of coal in slurries with variable voidage; and on-line determination of moisture in coal, iron in high grade iron ores and sulphur in lead sinter.